The airplane had an operating ceiling of over 15,000 feet, (4,400 metres) and under the right conditions, could stay in the air for up to 20 hours. The PBY Catalina was designed by Consolidated-Vultee Aircraft Corporation, which received an order from the US Navy on 28 October 1933 to build an experimental patrol aircraft designated XP3Y-1. history.navy.mil. "World Air Forces Directory". (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). Polmar, Norman. PBY stands for Patrol Bomber, the “Y” simply denotes the manufacturer which was Consolidated Aircraft Co. Fire Eaters N9505C | From the movie Always; Marketplace. See more ideas about Catalina, Flying boat, Amphibious aircraft. On 23 October 1967, the first prototype performed its maiden flight, and the first production aircraft was handed over during June 1969. The only complete PBY Catalina walk around in existence. Here are seven amazing facts about the Catalina PBY, an aircraft that patrolled the vast reaches of the world’s oceans, looking for an enemy to track, report, or destroy. A VP-12 PBY-1 in 1937 PBY-4s in the Philippines in 1939 PBY at NAS Corpus Christi in August 1942 A VP-61 PBY-5A in the Aleutians, 1943 VP-52 "Black Cats" in the south-west Pacific, 1943 An RAAF 11 Sqn. 1:48 American Export Airlines PBY-2 Catalina (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). Jun 24, 2018 - Explore Brad Blanchard's board "PBY" on Pinterest. She was 63 feet (20 metres) long, 19 feet (six metres) high, with a 104-foot (31 metre) wingspan. The “naked gunner” or Rabaul Harbour, 1944. charlie It was the PBY Catalina in this aerial This brief collection of wartime narratives illustrates the PBY’s wide range of diverse roles. Later a letter was ad Hello members. Canadair's market research indicated that there were many aging seaplanes for which operators required a modern replacement. PBY Catalina 5A PBY stands for Patrol Bomber, the “Y” simply denotes the manufacturer which was Consolidated Aircraft Co. A critical asset in the Pacific, Caribbean, Atlantic, Mediterranean and Arctic theatres of operation, the aircraft’s mission set included dropping anti-shipping mines, aerial reconnaissance, intelligence gathering, search and rescue, anti-submarine patrol, bombing, transport and even troop insertion. 5 months ago "What the fuck are merchant ships doing with that much firepower ?!" The PBY-5 Catalina is a rank I American bomber with a battle rating of 2.0 (AB/SB) and 1.7 (RB). After the War it was converted for civilian use mostly as a water bomber to help fight forest fires first in Newfoundland and later in western Canada. , The CL-215 was designed to perform well in the aerial firefighter role. Following World War II, large seaplanes and flying boats suffered a mass extinction. , As of September 2019 there were 64 CL215/CL-415 registered with Transport Canada. An American piloting a British PBY got a fix on the battleship Bismarck, helping the Royal Navy eventually destroy the German battleship. All Rights Reserved. It has been in the game since the start of the Open Beta Test prior to Update 1.27. , Canadian transport conglomerate Bombardier Aerospace (who had acquired Canadair during the 1980s) decided to terminate production of the type during the late 1980s. A VP-12 PBY-1 in 1937 PBY-4s in the Philippines in 1939 PBY at NAS Corpus Christi in August 1942 A VP-61 PBY-5A in the Aleutians, 1943 VP-52 "Black Cats" in the south-west Pacific, 1943 An RAAF 11 Sqn. I third the PBY. Mine was from the Dare kit and is just a really nice flying plane, even if mine is a bit heavy and too fast I do have to admit never flying off water, and never will. This hull incorporating a high deadrise angle to reduce impact loads exerted during landings, along with a high step to improve breakaway. The aircraft, which was one of a batch of ten, had been purchased under a £4 million arrangement; by July 1970, the order had been completed, along with a third of a 15 aircraft order from the government of Quebec. These crew-members normally rotated through manning the guns when not engaged in their primary duties. civilian fire-bomber, the Consolidated PBY Catalina has served a distinguished career as one of the most rugged and versatile aircraft in U.S. history. The PBY was an essential component of some of the most dramatic moments of the Second World War. - Photo taken at Edinburgh (YPED) in South Australia, Australia on November 26, 2016.  The aircraft's belly houses a pair of 1,400 litres (300 imp gal) water tanks of which large downward-facing doors forms their bottoms, these open to rapidly discharge water over a target area. Consolidated had to struggle to meet all orders, not only for the PBY but also for the B-24 bomber. HISTORY: From its introduction to U.S. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). The Consolidated PBY Catalina is a twin-engined multi-role flying boat or amphibious aircraft produced by the US-American manufacturer Consolidated Aircraft Corporation. The PBY line of flying boats was conceived in 1933 in Buffalo, New York. Each engine drives a pump for the hydraulic system, which is used to actuate the engine cowl and wing flaps, the wheel brakes, water drop doors and pick-up probes, as well as for undercarriage retraction; each engine also drives a 28V DC generator which powers the aircraft's electrical systems. Information for Catalina Bomber: Catalina Bomber is an Air Unit based on the Consolidated PBY Catalina. Soot residue from burnt oil was added to soap and washed over the fuselage of the PBYs, turning them black and making them difficult to spot in the darkness. CalNat also operated Grumman F7F-3P Tigercat BuNo 80483, N6178C, Tanker 43. This technique proved so effective that within months, new PBYs landing on Guadalcanal arrived painted black and became known as the “Black Cats.”. The name Catalina was given to the aircraft by the British, but later also adopted by the USN. , Over a period of 21 years beginning in 1969, 125 of these aircraft were built and sold to customers in 11 countries. Furthermore, numerous conversion and improvement programmes have been developed for existing aircraft, such as the CL-215T, a turbine-powered model of the original aircraft which replaces the original Pratt & Whitney R-2800-83AM radial engines with a pair of Pratt & Whitney Canada PW123AF turbine engines instead. For his daily tweets of rare and fascinating World War Two photos, follow him at @lebrunjames81. The wheels work good when I have to fly off pavement. 98% Upvoted. Faithfully relied upon until the war's end, the aircraft were also utilized for search and rescue missions. While the Catalina was designed by Consolidated, our OA-10 was one of the PBY’s license and produced by Vickers. G-PBYA was originally ordered for the Royal Canadian Air Force as a Canso A amphibian, basically equivalent to the US Navy PBY-5A. A restored PBY fire-bomber drops a load of water. It has been in the game since the start of the Open Beta Test prior to Update 1.27. August 5, 2014 By Barry Schiff. THE CONSOLIDATED PBY was not one of the Second World War’s more glamorous warplanes; it was a slow and ungainly, twin-engine “flying boat.” Yet despite its odd appearance, it would go on to become the most numerous and successful amphibious float plane in history. Find the perfect pby a stock photo. This set depicts the PBY-5A Catalina fire bomber used in the 1989 Steven Spielberg movie Always. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). PBY Catalina, U.S. The real aircraft was owned by Salfco, Inc. of Ephrata, WA.  The CL-215 is relatively conventional in terms of its aerodynamics, all of the flying controls use traditional surfaces and are manually actuated via mechanical linkages. The last military PBYs served until the 1980s. Posted by. For his actions, Leonard Birchall is remembered today as the “Saviour of Ceylon.”, A handful of PBYs played a key role in the Battle of Midway. Many post war PBYs became fire bombers. 2013. On long-range patrols, crews rotated through watches. Be advised that non Standard Category certificated PBY's are greatly restricted from international operations without a waiver from each country visited.  It features an atypically spacious fuselage for an amphibian, which is designed to accommodate for the operational needs of various roles that the aircraft was developed to perform. In US Army Air Force service, the aircraft was known as the OA-10A (PBY-5A) and OA-10B (PBY-6A). The Consolidated PBY Catalina was the U. S. Navy's most successful patrol flying boat of the war but naval aviators also used the PBY to attack ships at night, and to search for and rescue people stranded at sea. Consolidated PBY Catalina gallery (some examples) Photos . Any of these could act as bombardier when not flying the plane. The Royal Air Force's Coastal Command flew Catalinas under the designations Catalina Mk I/II/III/IV. The prototype first flew from Lake Erie in 1935 and by 1936 the aircraft was in service with the U.S. Navy. "Canso PBY-5A C-FNJE started its life as RCAF11094 and had its first flight in 1943 as a patrol bomber during WWII. PB2B-1 in New Britain, August 1945 An Air … The origins of the CL-215 can be traced back to two earlier project studies conducted by Canadian aircraft manufacturer Canadair, the CL-43 and CL-204. The next day, another American PBY discovered the main Japanese fleet, facilitating the decisive battle that saw the U.S. Navy sink four Japanese carriers, thereby turning the tide of the Pacific War. The famous PBY Catalina flying-boat used waist guns; they were mounted in so-called "blisters" extending beyond the hull. A PBY prototype, circa 1935. Naval service in 1936, through its continued international military use into the 1970's, to the recent retirement of the last civilian fire-bomber, the Consolidated PBY Catalina has served a Consolidated PBY Catalina gallery (some examples) Photos . So there is clearly important operational history in this role.  By November 1968, Canadair had decided to commit to an initial production batch of 30 aircraft. "Catalina" in 1943 An USAAF OA-10A during a rescue exercise, 1944 An RNZAF 6 Sqn. Hello members. Longview Aviation Asset Management Corp., CVG Ferrominera Orinoco: two CL-215s, one crashed on 1989, the other one has been parked ever since at, 1005 – CL-215 cockpit on static display at the Musée de L'Hydraviation in. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). Found this of a Consolidated PBY-6A Catalina from when it was stationed at Oslo Airport Fornebu as a water bomber for forest fire fighting. The PBY-5 and PBY-5A "Catalina" patrol-bomber aircraft successfully served during the Battle of Atlantic with some 20 German U-boats being destroyed, starting with German (Type XIV) U-boat, U-464, on August 20, 1942. http://search.ebscohost.com.cfc.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=85414212&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Hoyle, Craig.  Arising from an earlier 1960s research study at the company, the original concept was for a twin-engined floatplane transport, that was altered into a "firefighter" as a result of a request by forestry officials in the Quebec Service Aérien (Quebec Government Air Service) for a more effective way of delivering water to forest fires. Hornell’s aircraft was shot down during the engagement and he and his crew spent over 20 hours in the frigid sea before being rescued.  While the CL-215A served as the standard water bomber configuration, another model, designated as the CL-215C, had been envisioned to dispense with the design compromises as to better perform the water bomber mission, allowing it be furnished with larger doors on the sides of the fuselage and a revised underfloor hull structure.  Speaking during the new model's development, company officials recognised that market demand for the CL-215T was marginal, and thus not enough to justify developing an all-new aircraft. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons), In October, 1942, U.S. Navy PBYs attacked enemy ground forces and flew bombing raids against Japanese ships, all at night, during the Guadalcanal campaign. The Canso airframe was operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) until 1962. July 29, 2015 Editor Commemorative Air Force, Warbird Restorations, ... but relatively corrosion-free fuselage of Bu.64097 and replacing the crumpled wing with that from their other former fire bomber, Bu.64092. Birchall’s crew alerted Allied forces before their plane was shot down by a group of Zeros launched from a Japanese carrier. A typical PBY crew included nine officers and men. - Photo taken at Edinburgh (YPED) in South Australia, Australia on November 26, 2016. The Catalina is one of my favorite WW2 aircraft. The flying boats gunner stripped down to rescue the wounded man while under fire. Von 1935 bis 1945 wurden insgesamt 3272 der Flugboote bzw. The sighting directly resulted in the destruction of the infamous battleship by the Royal Navy. ", "ASN Aircraft accident: Canadair CL-215-1A10, YV-O-INC-2, Puerto Ordaz. Edinburgh Air Force Base - "Felix" the Black Cat, was on static display during a family day at RAAF Base Edinburgh. CAF PBY Catalina Restoration Update. The identity of the ‘naked gunner’ has never been established.  The CL-215 can be used as an airborne firefighting platform, in which capacity it is used as a water bomber; it has been claimed to be the first aircraft designed to withstand the severe aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads imposed by such usage. "Only Aerial Fire Extinguishing Fleet of Turkey". It was one of the most widely used seaplanes of World War II and Catalinas served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other nations. It was originally designed as a long-range patrol bomber, intended for use to sink shipping and disrupt enemy sea lines of communication. None of our partner shops or mates has this currently for sale. Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, “Consolidated PBY-5A Canso” https://www.warplane.com/aircraft/collection/details.aspx?aircraftId=11 (Accessed 30 September 2020). The Consolidated PBY Catalina, was produced as a flying boat and seaplane amphibian in the 1930s and 1940s.In Canadian service it was known as the Canso.It was one of the most widely used seaplanes of World War II.Catalinas served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other nations. "Water-Bombers Required! , CL-215s have been involved in 30 accidents, 19 fatal. The plane is overall good but, when using it in air arcade or custom, it was easy to get shot down even with the … No need to register, buy now!  Viking Air had previously purchased the rights to the Twin Otter, and had subsequently opened a production line to manufacture new Twin Otter airframes. (288 km/h). “Tuck” Smith of the U.S. Navy, on loan with the RAF to help train British pilots to fly the aircraft. The 1962 preliminary design, designated as the CL-204, was a purpose-designed water bomber that evolved into an amphibian flying boat configuration, powered by two shoulder-mounted 2,100 hp (1,566 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800 piston engines. The remaining six survivors, including Birchall, were picked up by a Japanese destroyer and taken prisoner. Made airworthy, it was obtained by the Qantas Founders Museum at Longreach, QLD and became VH-EAX on 30 September that year. The PBY was a jack-of-all-trades. Keijsper, Gerard. For this purpose, Canadair paid heed to requirements previously defined by the United States Navy under MIL-F-7179, having judged these criteria to be optimal for their purposes.  Developing a newer aircraft meant that, unlike its older competitors, the latest techniques to stave off corrosion could be applied, as well as a fail-safe structure, to give the aircraft a lengthy lifespan. Catalinas would continue to serve in a number of nations’ navies and air forces for decades after the Second World War; Brazil, for example, continued to operate the PBY until 1982. , The definitive design, which was designated as the CL-215, was publicly revealed at the 1965 Paris Air Show. They could drop torpedoes, depth charges, and bombs, while defending themselves with multiple high-caliber machine guns. The PBY was an incredibly versatile airplane that could land on both water and land runways. A crewman boards a PBY carrying a .30 calibre machine gun. This young crewman of a US Navy “Dumbo” (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). On July 30, 1945, two torpedoes launched from a Japanese submarine slammed into the side of USS Indianapolis, days after she completed her secret mission to deliver enriched uranium and other parts of the Hiroshima bomb to Tinian Island. The iconic photo was taken by Horace Bristol as the gunner got back to his station, under enemy fire, with no time to change back into his clothes before manning his weapon. share. Both tanks are positioned directly upon the aircraft's centre of gravity so that filling or emptying the tanks has minimal impact upon the aircraft's flying characteristics. Consolidated PBY Catalina Bomber / Maritime Patrol Aircraft. Birchall spent the rest of the war in a Japanese prison camp, but his crews’ signal alerted the defenders of Ceylon to prepare for the impending attack. Amid the subsequent hunt for the Bismarck, it was a RAF Catalina that first spotted the enemy warship west of Brest on May 26. As many as 80 Catalinas remain as museum pieces in more than a dozen countries; at least 20 are still airworthy and make regular appearances at air shows. PBY-5A Catalina / Sikorsky S-55 / MB326 Airmacchi Aerocalcas Argentinas 1:72 72016 Mehrfachthemen (3) + Aktionen Stash . Wilkinson, Stephan. The PBY sent a coded message to its base at 7:15, but by the time this message was decoded and passed on to CINCPAC, the Japanese bombs had begun falling. “PB” stands for Patrol Bomber, with “Y” being Consolidated Aircraft Corporation’s manufacturer identification. Die Consolidated PBY Catalina war ein zweimotoriges Seeaufklärungsflugzeug des US-amerikanischen Herstellers Consolidated Aircraft (ab 1943: Consolidated Vultee). A U.S. Marine was shot down while attacking the Japanese fortress at Rabaul Harbour in 1944. The apparatus is designed around previously-proven concepts and careful design. An Allied Catalina engages the German submarine U-199. Weltkriegs von der US Navy, der Royal Navy und den sowjetischen Seefliegern eingesetzt wurde. Consolidated PBY Catalina was a twin engine aircraft capable of land and / or sea landings.  All aluminium components that made direct contact with water were sulphurically anodised and sealed used sodium dichromate; other aluminium elements received a chromate coating before the exterior paint was applied while steel was plated with a cadmium-titanium alloy. “Cat Tales.” Aviation History 23 (5): 24–31. Within minutes, the heavy cruiser was gone. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! ", https://www.aerialfiremag.com/hellenic-air-force-suffers-its-second-cl-215-crash-of-the-year/, "Airframe Dossier - Canadair CL-215-1A10, c/n 1040, c/r F-ZBBT", "Airframe Dossier - Canadair CL-215-1, c/n 1005, c/r F-ZBBE", "Airframe Dossier - Canadair CL-215, c/n 1021, c/r F-ZBAR", "Airframe Dossier - Canadair CL-215, c/n 1026, c/r F-ZBBH", "Exposición exterior del Museo de Aeronáutica y Astronáutica", "Airframe Dossier - Canadair CL-215-1A10, s/n UD.13-1 EdA, c/n 1010, c/r EC-BXM", Panhellenic Association of Families Lost in Action Aviators, North Carolina Division of Forest Resources Aviation Resources, de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth & Menasco Moth, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Canadair_CL-215&oldid=996558411, All Wikipedia articles written in Canadian English, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of any material on this site without express and written permission from the author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). Meme. , Production of the CL-215 progressed through five series. More than 900 of Indianapolis’ crew escaped the sinking ship but remained in the water for days; 600 would die of thirst, hunger, exposure and shark attacks. Consolidated PBY Catalina Seeaufklärer / Bomber. The PBY was also the first aircraft equipped with magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) equipment to help locate submerged submarines. A Catalina fire bomber could land on a lake and take on four tons of water in 14 seconds while land-based aircraft had to waste valuable time returning to an airfield to refill their tanks. The PBY-5A was the first amphibious version with retractable landing gear. The fighters strafed Birchall’s downed aircraft in the sea, killing three members of his crew. The PBY-5 was piloted by Ensign Leonard B. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, “Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina” https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/consolidated-pby-5-catalina/nasm_A19730277000 (Accessed 30 September 2020). The PBY – Naval Air Museum (operated by the PBY Memorial Foundation) can be found in downtown Oak Harbor on Whidbey Island in Washington state.The Oak Harbor section of Naval Air Station (NAS) Whidbey Island was once a thriving seaplane base and during World War Two the Consolidated PBY Catalina amphibious patrol bomber (also used for Search And Rescue duties) was … Nov 3, 2020 - Explore Edgar Aldana's board "PBY Catalina", followed by 1161 people on Pinterest. The PBY was an incredibly versatile airplane that could land on … Consolidated Vultee PBY-5A Catalina N9505C (S/N 34027) has hit the market. In the middle of the round, friendly ships need to establish a line of fire from B while the hydro cap A. We don't know about any in-box reviews for this "Always" Catalina Fire Bomber (#72-PBY-1) from Draw Decal. In US Army Air Force service, the aircraft was known as the OA-10A (PBY-5A) and OA-10B (PBY-6A). Pby Catalina: The famous dive bomber. Post war service included fire bomber, survey, airliner, sportsmen and even the famous oceanographer Jacques Cousteau. Learn how your comment data is processed. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Consolidated PBY–5a Catalina: Stand up and salute Consolidated PBY–5a Catalina: Stand up and salute Downed airmen owe their lives to the PBY Downed airmen owe their lives to the PBY. (200 km/h), with a maximum speed of 180 m.p.h. Rare Historical Photos, “The naked gunner, Rescue at Rabaul, 1944” https://rarehistoricalphotos.com/naked-gunner-rescue-rabaul-1944/ (Accessed 30 September 2020). Surplus models would later be put to work in North America as forest fire water bombers. The Catalina Preservation Society, “Specifications” http://pbycatalina.com/specifications/ (Accessed 30 September 2020).  These doors are normally hydraulically actuated and electrically-controlled, but a manual release is present for emergency use only; the tanks can be emptied simultaneously, individually, or in sequence at the pilot's selection. Leonard Birchall, the “Saviour of Ceylon.”(Image source: WikiMedia Commons), On April 4, 1942, a RCAF squadron leader named Leonard Birchall was patrolling south of Ceylon in his Catalina PBY when he spotted a Japanese carrier fleet steaming for the island, which was home of the Royal Navy’s Eastern Fleet. The Consolidated PBY Catalina is a flying boat and amphibious aircraft that was produced in the 1930s and 1940s. Hence more Catalina's were ordered from the Canadian factories of Boeing and Vickers. The plane was flown by Lieutenant Commander Robert Marks. The prototype (c/n 9459) flew for the first time on 21 March 1935 at Hampton Road, powered by two 615 kw (825-hp) Pratt & Whitney XR-1830-54 Twin Wasp engines. I like crazy boats. Perhaps the most significant development of the type occurred during the 1980s in the form of the CL-215T, an initiative to replace the original Pratt & Whitney R-2800-83AM radial engines with a pair of Pratt & Whitney Canada PW123AF turbine engines. The armament on the PBY-5 Catalina is what makes up for its clunky movement. The enlisted men were mechanics and signalmen.  The Canadair CL-215 (Scooper) is the first model in a series of flying boat amphibious aircraft designed and built by Canadian aircraft manufacturer Canadair, and later produced by Bombardier. 5 months ago. The plane is a PBY-6A seaplane that was built and used during the war. The crew of a Catalina fire bomber could land on a lake and scoop four tons of water in fourteen seconds. , The CL-215 is powered by a pair of 2,200 hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800-83AM radial engines, which was reliably regarded as a proven and reliable power unit. The real aircraft was owned by Salfco, Inc. of Ephrata, WA. The PBY was the most numerous aircraft of its kind.  To prevent the tanks from becoming overly-filled, overflow ducts are present at the top of the tanks, which discharge excess water via the sides of the fuselage. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). This aircraft is the last PBY serial number. The Magazine Basic Theme by bavotasan.com. The origins of the CL-215 can be traced back to two earlier project studies conducted by Canadian aircraft manufacturer Canadair, the CL-43 and CL-204.The CL-43 was conceived as a logistics aircraft and was based on the design of the Canadian Vickers-built 369 Canso (which was itself a variant of the Consolidated PBY Catalina). There is a national list of Tanker numbers that simply gives each fire bomber a number. Contact between dissimilar metals was avoided wherever reasonable to do so, or otherwise insulated from another by four coats of primer. Pby Catalina: The famous dive bomber. 3.9k. The gunners held their fire until the bombs were released to further increase the element of surprise. According to Battle of Midway a PBY Catalina scored the only US air-launched torpedo hit of the engagement; also the first damaging strike of the engagement. 5 (10, 2004): 14-15. https://search-proquest-com.cfc.idm.oclc.org/docview/203520587?accountid=9867.  In a standard configuration, fuel is housed across 12 tanks within the wing, although additional tanks can be installed within the outer wing. Development Origins. Canadian Aviation and Space Museum, “Consolidated PBY-5A Canso A” https://ingeniumcanada.org/artifact/consolidated-pby-5a-canso-a (Accessed 30 September 2020). Consolidated PBY Catalina Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina.  On 23 October 1967, the first prototype performed its maiden flight. A second .30 calibre was situated along the bottom of the hull in the ventral position. The PBY-5 Catalina is a rank I American bomber with a battle rating of 2.0 (AB/SB) and 1.7 (RB). 352 pages - 1987 - New Well - illustrated with maps and photographs, this wonderful book is the complete story of the most famous flying boats : the Consolidated PBY Catalina.  During June 1969, the first CL-215 was delivered to the French civil protection agency (Sécurité Civile, then known as Protection Civile). 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