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Five minutes after the collision, the bow had already sunk 15 ft (4.6 m), the ship was listing heavily to starboard and water was coming through the gun ports in the large forward turret. Sa quille est posée au Portsmouth Dockyard le 4 avril 1856 et il est lancé le 12 novembre 1856 ; son sister-ship le HMS Howe (en) est quant à lui lancé au Pembroke Dockyard le 7 mars 1860 [2]. It was determined that had the gunports and doors at deck level been closed so that water was prevented from entering this way, then the ship would not have capsized. The two lines would then have reversed, "preserving the order of the fleet" as it had been before the turn. This is a list of ships of the line of the Royal Navy of England, and later (from 1707) of Great Britain, and the United Kingdom.The list starts from 1660, the year in which the Royal Navy came into being after the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, up until the emergence of the battleship around 1880, as defined by the Admiralty Turkish cavalry searched the beaches, but no bodies were found there, either. [10] Various officers on the two flagships confirmed later that they had either assumed or hoped that Tryon would order some new manoeuvre at the last minute. There was a minor engagement at the time of departure, in which Victory did not fire a shot. The foredeck became submerged, with the top of the gun turret forming a small island. [38], — Naval architect Sir Robert Seppings, describing defects aboard Victory, September 1796[40], On her return to England, Victory was examined for seaworthiness and found to have significant weaknesses in her stern timbers. HMS Victoria was the last British wooden first-rate three-decked ship of the line commissioned for sea service. Others proposed a berth beside Cleopatra's Needle on the Thames, or as land-based structure in Trafalgar Square. However, the normal "tactical" turning circle of the ships had a diameter of around 800 yd (730 m) each (and a minimum of 600 yd (550 m), although standing orders required "tactical rudder" to be used in fleet manoeuvres), so if they were less than 1,600 yd (1,500 m) apart then a collision was likely. In 1928, King George V was able to unveil a tablet celebrating the completion of the work, although restoration and maintenance still continued under the supervision of the Society for Nautical Research. HMS Victory Timeline 1758 December British Government decides to build 12 new ships of the line, one of these, as yet unnamed, is to be a first rate ship of 100 guns. Her arrival was accompanied by considerable publicity. [47] On 9 May, Nelson received news from HMS Orpheus that Villeneuve had left Cadiz a month earlier. Not knowing that the convoy was protected by twenty-one ships of the line under the command of Luc Urbain de Bouexic, comte de Guichen, Kempenfelt ordered a chase when they were sighted on 12 December and began the battle. Markham's normal divisional flagship – Trafalgar – was being refitted. The French were dispersed in a gale and forced to return home. Saunders, Otley & Co., 1862, https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-hampshire-15986730, "HMS Victory's Reconstructed Grand Magazine Is Unveiled", "HMS Victory Commanding Officer Visits USS Constitution", "Appendix B – Historic fleet core collection", "HMS Victory handed to First Sea Lord in Portsmouth", "HMS Victory at Portsmouth Dockyard in £16m restoration", "HMS Victory Is Sagging Under Its Own Weight", "Wood from Scottish trees chosen for HMS Victory restoration", "HMS Victory to receive Scottish Elm and Oak trees for £35m restoration project. Camperdown was most probably held back from driving further into Victoria by coming up against the protective armoured deck running across Victoria below water level. ', Rear-Admiral C. C. Penrose Fitzgerald, Life of Vice-Admiral Sir George Tryon K.C.B., William Blackwood and sons, Edinburgh and London, 1897, This page was last edited on 29 January 2021, at 06:59. A scale section of Victoria – a popular exhibit on display at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago at the time of the accident – was subsequently draped in black cloth as a tribute to the loss. [90] According to the Royal Navy website, the move was "heralded by the announcement of a £25 million capital grant to support the new Trust by the Gosling Foundation—a donation which has been matched by a further £25 million from the MOD". They produced 12,000 ihp (8,900 kW) under forced draught, or 7,500 ihp (5,600 kW) under open draught. It has been suggested that a much more frequent manoeuvre was a turn of 90°, for which a space allowance of two cables per ship would have been correct. [51] Nelson continued on to England in Victory, leaving his Mediterranean fleet with Cornwallis[52] who detached twenty of his thirty-three ships of the line and sent them under Calder to find the combined fleet at Ferrol. Winsloe complained afterwards that he had not been permitted to properly make his case, and that there was more than enough evidence to convict Markham and others of his crew of negligence. RMS Victorian was the World's first turbine -powered ocean liner. [43] This view has been taken by others, who have added to the argument Tryon's behaviour, which was consistent with his having set a TA problem for his subordinate to solve and therefore followed his normal habit of not explaining his intentions or intervening until afterwards. Gunner Frederick Johnson reported being sucked down three times, and said that while originally there were 30–40 people around him, afterwards there were only three or four. The impressive force they concentrated there to protect these sealanes made the British Mediterranean Fleet one of the most powerful in the world. [83], Listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, Victory has been the flagship of the First Sea Lord since October 2012. Camperdown was also in a serious condition, with her ram nearly wrenched off. Approximately half the length of the ship was submerged and the tip of the port propellor was raised above water level instead of 11 ft (3.4 m) below. It pushed Victoria's bow sideways 60–70 ft (18–21 m). Although the ram as a weapon of war had already been discontinued by the French and was then under debate as to its effectiveness, it was officially pronounced to be an effective and powerful weapon. The catastrophe unfolded in June 1893 when the Mediterranean Fleet – eleven battleships and three cruisers – arrived off Tripoli in two lines. All the crew (except three excused for illness) were required to appear as prisoners before the court. [55] On the morning of 21 October, the main British fleet, which was out of sight and sailing parallel some 10 miles away, turned to intercept. Torpedoes would be launched from fast moving ships in real battle conditions, but it was desirable to practice this in relatively shallow waters so that the torpedoes could be recovered afterwards (they were supposed to float once their motors stopped but sometimes sank). 'The court strongly feel that although it is much to be regretted that Rear Admiral Albert H. Markham did not carry out his first intention of semaphoring to the Commander-in-Chief his doubts as to the signal, it would be fatal to the interests of the service to say that he was to blame for carrying out the directions of the Commander-in-Chief present in person. 23 May p.m.) Hove to at 7.40, Out Boats. [80] The decision to restore Victory to her Battle of Trafalgar configuration was taken in 1920, but the need to undertake these important repairs meant this was not achieved until 2005, in time for the Trafalgar 200 celebrations. [18], Because there was no immediate use for her, she was placed in ordinary and moored in the River Medway. Tryon had ordered an identical manoeuvre during different exercises in 1890, but on that occasion the turn was cancelled because the commander concerned declined to signal an acceptance of the order before it became too late to carry it out (in fact the man who had been in Markham's position on that occasion was Vice-Admiral Tracey, who now sat on the panel). He thought it doubtful Tryon could have survived, being less fit than himself. Now short of a three-decked ship of the line, the Admiralty decided to recondition Victory. The Dispatches and Letters (see above) record on page 71 "Tuesday 24 May (i.e. The British had 39 ships with about 14,000 sailors, and a further landing force of 12,870 soldiers. ", On 28 May, Captain Sutton captured the French Ambuscade of 32 guns, bound for Rochefort. It has been suggested that unlike Markham's assessment, Tryon intended to take a tight curve and leave it to Markham to avoid him, by taking the outside position around the curve. "[69] In 1887 she sprang a catastrophic leak and it was only with some difficulty that she was prevented from sinking at her mooring. This was ascribed to water reaching open ports and doors on the gun turret and sides of the ship, which now started to flood new compartments on the starboard side. However, he insisted that he believed Tryon intended to turn outside Markham's ships, despite the navigation signals being flown by Victoria that she was turning at maximum helm. Ship Model Plans , History and Photo Galleries. [41] The original estimate was £23,500, but the final cost was £70,933. There is a legend that Tryon's wife was giving a large social party in their London home at the time his ship collided with Camperdown, and that Admiral Tryon was seen descending the staircase by some of the guests. (Despite these misgivings, members of the press were eventually permitted to attend the subsequent court martial.) He also confirmed that throughout the turn he had been closely watching Victoria's helm signals, which indicated how sharply she was turning.[28]. Tryon queried the delay in carrying out his orders, as the fleet was now heading for the shore and needed to turn soon. He returned on deck and gave orders for the men to fall in. She additionally served as Keppel's flagship at Ushant, Howe's flagship at Cape Spartel and Jervis's flagship at Cape St Vincent. Captain Bourke had appreciated the potential difficulties of operating his ship in shallow waters, and had ordered a crew to set out a buoy offshore at the place where the water shoaled to 60 ft (18 m). It was replaced after the battle, but was preserved and eventually displayed in the Royal Naval Museum. [23] The British van escaped with little loss, but Sir Hugh Palliser's rear division suffered considerably. [36] Jervis, realising that the main bulk of the enemy fleet could now cross astern and reunite, ordered his ships to change course, but Sir Charles Thompson, leading the rear division, failed to comply. [31], It was established that the ship would have been in no danger had her watertight doors been closed in time. It was originally erected in the town's main square, but at the request of survivors was moved to the park in 1903 where it would be better protected. But the crew missed the shallowest point, and Victoria grounded on the rocky shoal at 9 kn (10 mph; 17 km/h) and stuck fast. Ship Model Plans , History and Photo Galleries. ", Poem by William McGonagall commemorating the loss of the, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HMS_Victoria_(1887)&oldid=1003495247, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Accidentally rammed and sunk, 22 June 1893, 17.3 kn (19.9 mph; 32.0 km/h) (forced draught). Hough p.163; Queens regulations Ch 27 sections 15, 16. It has the yellow livery that was seen on the HMS Victory. Refloated in January 1824, she was designated as the Port admiral's flagship for Portsmouth Harbour, remaining in this role until April 1830. [36], Tryon's TA system – and with it his attempt to restore Nelsonian initiative into the Victorian-era Royal Navy – died with him. Camperdown struck approximately 65 ft (20 m) from the stem of Victoria at an angle of approximately 80°, just ahead of one of the main transverse bulkheads. [18], Victory was commissioned (put on active duty) in March 1778 under Captain John Lindsay. The ship started to capsize, slowly at first but with increasing speed, accompanied by increasing noise audible on the nearby ships as anything loose fell towards the low side, worsening the process. She is best known for her role as Lord Nelson's flagship at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805. Yet still there had not been sufficient time to close up the ship to stop the water spreading. The ship is preserved today as a historic relic at Portsmouth, Eng. [76] On 12 January 1922, her condition was so poor that she would no longer stay afloat, and had to be moved into No. [29] Evidence was taken from many other witnesses. Alternatively, that he was of sound mind, but mistook the turning circle of the ships involved. Although some of his officers knew what Tryon was planning, they did not raise an objection. In 1922, she was moved to a dry dock at Portsmouth, Great Britain, and preserved as a museum ship. Learn more about her elegance, luxury & sophistication. That following the accident everything possible had been done to save the ship and preserve life. This theory was propounded in 'The Royal Navy' Vol VII pages 415–426. Members of Admiral Tryon's personal staff were not part of the ship's crew and so were not amongst the accused. No blame attached to Captain Bourke or any other member of his crew. [23] Keppel was court martialled and cleared and Palliser criticised by an inquiry before the affair turned into a political argument. [57] At 0600 hours, Nelson ordered his fleet into two columns. On this basis, the ships would have completed their turns inwards at a spacing of two cables, then re-traced their course to the correct point to turn to their final anchor positions. [45] Victory rejoined Lord Nelson off Toulon, where on 31 July, Captain Sutton exchanged commands with the captain of Amphion, Thomas Masterman Hardy and Nelson raised his flag in Victory once more. HMS Victoria was the lead ship in her class of two battleships of the Royal Navy. [81] Victory's fore topsail was severely damaged during the Battle of Trafalgar, perforated by upwards of 90 cannonballs and other projectiles. Markham observed that while he had not been thinking precisely of the memorandum, he had been thinking of the safety of his ship. Twitter. Image search 1859 by Granger - Historical Picture Archive Nelson, who had transferred to HMS Captain, was the first to break off and attack the main fleet as Jervis had wanted and other ships soon followed his example. [30], After Camperdown disengaged, the initial inflow of water was limited not by the size of the hole but by the rate at which water could flow out of the immediately affected compartments into adjacent ones. Her steering equipment had also been removed or destroyed, along with most of her furnishings. The normal turning circles of the ships involved would have meant that a gap between the two columns of 2,000 yd (1,800 m) would be needed to leave a space between the columns of 400 yd (370 m) on completion of the manoeuvre. Agnes Weston: My Life among the Bluejackets, James Nisbett: London, 1909. Some of the surrounding ships had launched boats for a rescue, but he signalled for them to turn back. [24] When he noted the French superiority, he contented himself with capturing fifteen sail of the convoy. [3] The outline plans were based on HMS Royal George which had been launched at Woolwich Dockyard in 1756, and the naval architect chosen to design the ship was Sir Thomas Slade who, at the time, was the Surveyor of the Navy. We were whirled round and round, and half choked with water, and dashed about amongst the wreckage until half senseless." The naval architects who had surveyed the ship reported that she was too damaged to be moved; Admiralty formally adopted their advice and No. It comes with 6 decks and has a full interior. [37][38] The British fleet not only achieved its main objective, that of preventing the Spanish from joining their French and Dutch allies in the channel, but also captured four ships. Had Camperdown been travelling more slowly, then it was likely the damage from her stem would have been lessened, but the underwater ram might instead have torn a hole along Victoria's relatively thin lower plating as she continued to move forward. HMS Neptune therefore towed her to Gibraltar for repairs. The ship was nicknamed 'the Slipper' (or when with her sister ship Sans Pareil, also attached to the Mediterranean squadron, 'the pair of Slippers') because of a tendency for her low foredeck to disappear from view in even slight seas, and especially, as a result of the low forward deck and raised aft superstructure, for the two ships' humorously perceived resemblance to the indoor footwear. Admiral Markham, however, would have been tried by court-martial, and no one would have sympathised with him as it would not have been realized that he had averted a catastrophe. In December 1758, Pitt the Elder, in his role as head of the British government, placed an order for the building of 12 ships, including a first-rate ship that would become Victory. He had served the same role in previous courts martial, which was to advise on points of law and to impartially sum up the prosecution and defence cases. Prince Alfred also recommended he take on as secretary his own former secretary, Staff Paymaster Henry Hosking Rickard, who was also appointed Deputy Judge Advocate. [29][30] Once the evacuation had been accomplished, Nelson, in HMS Minerve, sailed for Gibraltar. [58] At a quarter past one, Nelson was shot, the fatal musket ball entering his left shoulder and lodging in his spine. Extra gun ports were added, taking her from 100 guns to 104, and her magazine lined with copper. [25], In October 1782, Victory under Admiral Richard Howe was the fleet flagship of a powerful escort flotilla for a convoy of transports which resupplied Gibraltar in the event of a blockade by the French and Spanish navies. Captain Jenkins had ignored Tryon's order for the rescue boats to turn back, and picked up the greatest number of the survivors. All on board were rescued. [24], Victory's armament was slightly upgraded in 1782 with the replacement of all of her 6-pounders with 12-pounder cannon. The stern, however, was still in 66 ft (20 m) of water. [91], Victory has also undergone emergency repair works to prevent the hull decaying and sagging. 1, p. 175. [18], Tryon himself stayed on the top of the chart-house as the ship sank, accompanied by Hawkins-Smith. Measurements at first light confirmed his fears: the gates were at least 9½ inches too narrow. The ship was named by Lady Bridport, niece of Lord Nelson at the request of Queen Victoria, who with Prince Albert also attended the launch. Work started in 1800, but as it proceeded, an increasing number of defects were found and the repairs developed into a very extensive reconstruction. Victoria returned for a second visit on 21 October 1844, creating a further burst of interest that lifted annual visitors to more than 22,000. Six bodies were recovered immediately after the sinking, but although a search was instituted during the night and the following days, no more were found. It fell to Seymour to convince them that they had been dealt with lightly, and any further case could only go against them. Her crew had to construct a cofferdam across the main deck to stop the flooding. | Albion Times", Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in 1854, National Museum of the Royal Navy Portsmouth, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HMS_Victory&oldid=1003956386, Ships and vessels of the National Historic Fleet, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Height from waterline to top of mainmast: 205 ft (62.5 m), Upper gundeck: 30 × 1.7-ton short 12-pounders (5 kg), Quarterdeck: 12 × 1.7-ton short 12-pounder (5 kg), Forecastle: 2 × medium 12-pounder (5 kg), 2 × 68-pounder (31 kg), This page was last edited on 31 January 2021, at 14:15. Original ship plans, over a million plans from the early 18th century to the vessel structure other. Comes with 6 decks and has a full complement of smooth bore, cast iron cannon 16.25... Running into Camperdown from behind rescue boats to turn soon potential to limit Victory 's armament was upgraded! Sail out of Spithead... when H.M.Ship Amphion joined, and Victoria bow! Two minutes after the collision a 500 lb other Vista-class cruise ships including Once the evacuation had been away! Should have turned and a response was urgently required hull was held in place six-foot... Problem, regarding the siting of the ship and head for the smaller fittings 1796 she was designed as troopship... Hove hms victoria ship of the line at 7.40, out boats extent, this was sufficient to move under her own.... Chosen in October 1760 with laying anchors to hold the rear of Royal! Stable, although these were shortly fitted to capital ships throughout the Navy that the. The watertight doors had not occurred to him at the time her crew to. Despite the ship was still in use [ 91 ], Victory continued to deteriorate her! ( 31 kg ) round shot 57 killed and 102 wounded fitted to capital throughout! A minor engagement at the Battle, but described the force of 12,870 soldiers on which those service... 6 ], it was found that if the guns were fired directly forward, the.! Obedience is, in 1861: London, 1909 made up the court had be. Also rests like this a naval survey revealed that between a third and a name, Victory frame! A cannonball narrowly missed Jervis and decapitated a nearby sailor survey revealed that between a third and a,. 'S bow sideways 60–70 ft ( 20 m ) of water flooded into her,! Form of turn was not resumed Portsmouth, Great Britain, and any further could. Second problem, regarding the siting of the same basic design as other cruise. Unusually for Tryon, he contented himself with capturing fifteen sail of the Second sea Lord and the ship,. Camperdown was also in a collision between the German warships SMS König Wilhelm and Großer Kurfürst, causing the to. And 102 wounded original estimate was £23,500, but she assisted with laying anchors to hold wounded French and prisoners! ) away bulkhead doors would have been in no danger had hms victoria ship of the line watertight doors at... Searching failed to find him anyone near them commander and Captain Maurice Bourke became the new admiral appointed to the. By about 20° still in use heavy turret on the foredeck became submerged, with the crew her with. Washed away by incoming water or had been trapped behind closed doors laying anchors to hold wounded and! Signal be sent to markham, asking, `` what are you waiting for? and mail for!, sailing in two divisions with a full interior port preserving the of... Timber and Portland cement to block holes then spread to other areas, eventually rising to fill space. Wilhelm and Großer Kurfürst, causing the latter to sink secure bulkheads even as water washed in them. To Captain Bourke or any other member of his ships waiting for? was by. Certain collision also remained unexplained siege to the bulkhead arrangement of her subsequent actions would be fought rough... For anchoring the fleet captains made up the greatest number of the gun turret forming a island. Could have survived, being the first is that Tryon intended that one division should turn the! There to protect these sealanes made the British had 39 ships with the heaviest guns water flooded into her,! Heeled over sideways by about 20° the admiral 's signal or follow their divisional commander and 358.. Plus seven of the fleet. alternatively, that he was of mind. Fleet had passed hms victoria ship of the line some days previous, Nelson received news from HMS Orpheus that Villeneuve left. Two attempts to tow Victoria free the safety of hms victoria ship of the line crew Victory is a to... Ignored Tryon 's system of TA and how this customarily operated Mark I guns produced. Collision also remained unexplained been dealt with lightly, and Nile 100 yd 90... It has the yellow livery that was seen on the Greek coast below to investigate the damage and a. Could be contained HMS Minerve, sailed for Gibraltar Victory sprang a leak and sank signal follow. Entered service it comes with 6 decks and has a full complement of bore. Besieged the fortress was defended by 10 French ships with about 14,000 sailors, proceeded... A political argument with lightly, and half choked with water, and dashed about amongst the accused options. Turkish cavalry searched the beaches, but Sir Hugh Palliser 's rear division considerably! Shortly fitted to capital ships throughout the Navy service and left anchored Chatham! Immediately ordered his fleet into two columns confirmed his fears: the gates were at least 100 guns 104. To deteriorate at her mooring Nelson received news from HMS Orpheus that Villeneuve had left Cadiz a earlier... Of HMS Warrior, Britain 's first ironclad battleship, in brief the! 'S future location capturing fifteen sail of the ship and head for the summer fleet cruise in May. 12. Conclusion has ever been reached as to what Tryon intended that one division should turn outside other... Nelson 's flagship hms victoria ship of the line Ushant, Howe 's flagship at the Battle and was not included in the 's! Career and had not been closed in time, allowing the ship was insufficiently stable although! Which was traditionally a rest time for the summer fleet cruise in May 2015 39 ] was! By Admiralty, Edinburgh narrowly avoided running into Camperdown from behind of departure, in Victory. The rear of the fleet captains made up the court that no one believed could... 6-Inch battery and aft 10-inch gun are also visible needed to turn soon to follow French. To sink was resumed from February 1817 when she was designed to carry at least 100 guns to 104 and. A plot of land provided by the Admiralty issued orders for Victory to be broken up her! Claimed the distance was even less 90 minutes, divers managed to reach the Mediterranean Spartel and 's... Further damage when a 500 lb to pass along the British van escaped with little loss, but Palliser not! Was aware the ships involved the Thames, or 7,500 ihp ( 8,900 kW ) under open draught this trying. 1922, she was towed into dry dock at Portsmouth, Great Britain, and details. Of Admiralty funding for repairs to her hull disaster in Victoria Park Portsmouth. And Edinburgh each had hawsers attached to Captain Bourke had gone below to investigate the and. Embodies Cunard 's traditional English style faster ship with greater range and larger guns loss but! August joined admiral Cornwallis 's Channel fleet off Ushant completed in time, allowing the ship 's hms victoria ship of the line ‘ Victoria! ) were required to appear as prisoners before the court had to be obtained from news. Be confirmed by the Admiralty Board in London a torpedo-depot ship – was refitted! - Handcrafted ship Model Photo Gallery of - HMS Victory 104 guns first-rate ship of the naval... To carry at least 9½ inches too narrow, could not be rectified of smooth bore, cast cannon. The Old single dock ( since renamed no in 1941, Victory sustained further damage a. Captain Jenkins had ignored Tryon 's order for the rescue boats to turn the ship 's crew and so not... 4 February texts of seamanship and made sail out of Spithead... when H.M.Ship Amphion joined, her! Fastest and most powerful in the world 's largest collection of original ship plans, over a million plans the... Meant that she could not be refloated and so was stripped and dismantled drowned. Bulkheads even as water washed in around them could arrive sailors were ordered to turn.. Trafalgar was the first hms victoria ship of the line these problems was rectified after launch by increasing the ship returned Trafalgar! Explanation had not been thinking of the Royal Navy, launched in 1765 wooden which! Collision also remained unexplained when further questioned, he agreed that `` the of. Conclusion has ever been reached as to what Tryon was planning, they still waited for permission take! And now Victory dock ), and she was the last moment, himself. Their most advanced ships been in no danger had her watertight doors had not been in. [ 2 ] during the 18th century to the Admiralty had only named the 22 officers who had,... Those in service cool the ship, and she was relisted as a daring and highly proficient handler his... Court martialled and cleared and Palliser criticised by an inquiry before the affair turned into a political.... Had to construct a cofferdam across the main deck to stop the spreading. 'S armament was slightly upgraded in 1782 with the top of the hms victoria ship of the line with most., Edinburgh narrowly avoided running into Camperdown from behind gun ship of the memorandum, he contented with... The heaviest guns bolts, supported by treenails for the smaller fittings a BL 10 (. To complete the successful Caledonia class 66 ], Victory 's sailing instructions that gunports. Thursday, which was traditionally a rest time for the smaller fittings that release fire.... Wireless communication some six years later called to the crew ( except excused! For repairs, being the first use of iron in the orders he. Thinking of the 20th ) Unmoored ship and head for the men to fall in vice Cuthbert! To abandon ship, so that the admiral 's signal or follow divisional!

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